Archaeology and Landscape, Time and Memory
The author examines a number of recent anthropological/geographical approaches of the notion ‘landscape’ (especially those used by T. Ingold and E. Hirsch) as to their contribution towards a scientific theory in landscape archaeology. The current lack of a theoretical insight which encompasses the various environmental, archaeological and documentary sources in order to write landscape history is, in the author’ s view, the cause of the naivete with which landscape archaeological data are linked to historical events and processes. Time, it is argued, is a vital key to understanding landscape history.
New Light on the Ancient Town. Field survey and urban settlements
Over the past thirty years archaeological field surveys have aimed mainly at the discovery of rural settlement patterns. In the last decade, however, a more holistic approach has been adopted in which the soil is considered to be an archive containing higher and lower densities of traces of past human activities (i.e. sites and non-sites). The authors suggest that the rise of the urban survey in the 1980’s was closely connected with this new approach. Furthermore, it describes the aims and methods of this new type of survey. These are illustrated by a case study from recent field work carried out by the authors in southeast Italy. The paper closes with some comments on the methodological aspects of urban survey.
Off-site Trouble, Non-site Techniques: the RiuMannu Survey on Sardinia
In this article, the author discusses some problems of Mediterranean survey archaeology. The coherence of the archaeological record is posed as a methodological problem, specifically whether the finds are distributed as a blanket cover with locally higher and lower densities, or in concentrations of ‘sites’ with ‘junk’ in between. ‘Site-oriented’ archaeologists tend to regard the landscape as a passive entity which is exploited from the sites. Those advocating the former position (including the author) consider settlement and landscape as engaged in a dialectic relationship, mutually influencing each other. ‘Nonsite archaeology’ however raises the technical problem of measuring the density of the archaeological remains independently from present-day surface use and vegetation. A field technique is here proposed which eliminates this problem. Illustrations are drawn from the University of Leyden’s RiuMannu Survey Project on Sardinia.
Recent Dutch Field Work in Laconia, Greece
In 1983-89 the Department of Mediterranean Archaeology of the University of Amsterdam, in collaboration with the British School at Athens, conducted a program of intensive field walking east of Sparta in Laconia on the Peloponnese. The Laconia Survey led to the identification of over 400 sites (including villages, farmyards and villas, as well as graves and shrines) from the Late Neolithic to recent times. The first of two volumes presenting the results has recently appeared. As a sequel, the Amsterdam Department began work in 1995 at Geraki (ancient Geronthai), southeast of Sparta and outside the Laconia Survey area. Previous investigations of the imposing acropolis with its fortification wall indicated occupation from the Early Bronze Age onwards. The new Geraki project aims at revealing the long history of human occupation in more detail. In the two campaigns thus far (1995-96) the wall and other standing remains have been mapped out and described with the help of modem geodetical and other technology. An intensive survey has yielded numerous artifacts, ranging from the Late Neolithic to recent times (excepting notably the Mycenaean period). Geophysical work has also been carried out, and spolia, built into various local Byzantine churches, are being examined. Plans for future campaigns include a geomorphological study and a series of test trenches, which may be followed by full-scale excavations in selected areas.
Geo-archaeological Survey in Central Anatolia
Since 1990 archaeological excavations by a Belgian team in the ancient town of Pessinus (central Anatolia) have been supplemented by field survey. A geo-archaeological approach has been tested within the limits of the ancient Hellenistic, Roman and early Byzantine town. Based on a GIS especially designed for the area, an integrated analysis of the evolution of the landscape and the settlement system has been conducted. Some of the archaeological questions have been answered using computer models and geographical methods. This article aims at explaining the methodology of this regional research project.
Three Survey Campaigns in Francavilla Marittima. A preliminary report
Since 1991 three surveys have been carried out in the vicinity of the ancient site at Timpone della Motta near Francavilla Marittima (Calabria). The project is aimed at better understanding the nature of the settlement, and of the relationship between the town and its countryside. Onsite intensive survey revealed the remains of a large settIement on the flanks of the hill dating to the 6th c. BC. Material from earlier periods date the first human activities on this site from the Middle Bronze Age onwards. The regional survey results showed a number of small “Greek” sites, mostly located on the foothills of the Dolcedorme, at the north of the coastal plain. The survey of the lowlands to the south and southeast of the ancient settlement presented no evidence for a rural pattern that could be related to the site. The lack of rural sites in this area could mean that the 6th c. settlement was not selfsupporting in its agricultural needs. Another explanation could be that due to environmental change (e.g. colluviation or reclamation activities), the archaeological evidence was covered by younger sediments or even destroyed. Further research, both archaeological and environmental, will be necessary to provide us with more information about the relationship between the town and its countryside.
TMA 18 – Myths
Myth in Word and Image. An interpretative dilemma and the Swiss paradigm
Different sources of inspiration have been suggested for Greek mythological images. Hanfmann thought that Greek art with its imitation of nature and narrative style influenced the development of myth; Gombrich reversed this by stating that the narrative and descriptive myths influenced the development of Greek art. Swiss scholars developed their own paradigm. Burkert and Schefold still operate from the ‘primate of the world’ (over art) idea. The Swiss LIMC catalogued the content of written myths; there is no attempt to interpret the mythological scenes as art. The lexicon operates on the ‘word’ principle. Bérard, together with scholars from Lausanne and Paris, started a different approach in which archaeology, anthropology and religion are used to study the context of mythological images. He discovered very useful information on the contents of images. It seems that the old dichotomy of word and image can be resolved by taking both back to their historical contexts. Images have their own story to tell, because they communicate on a level different from words.
Word vs. Image. Athena’s birth, a new typology
Mythological births are one of the themes most representative in Greek Art. Especially popular was the way in which Athena was born from Zeus’ scull. Since the 19th century these scenes have been the subject of many studies, and several typologies were drawn up by different scholars. Most of them base their classifications on the presence of Hephaistos because of the important role assigned to him by ancient text writers. This is, however, an antiquated point of view, according to which all representations are merely ‘illustrations’ for the texts. A more adequate approach is to consider texts and representations as two different sources: literary and iconographical. They are independent from and complimentary to each other. After studying the representations of Athena’s birth, the presence of Hephaistos turns out to be of no great importance to the iconography of the scene. It is on the contrary Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth, that is depicted on almost all the representations of the theme. This new typology is therefore based upon here presence/position on the scenes, rather than on that of Hephaistos.
Suovetaurilia. The myth of a typical Mars offering
According to the iconographic and literary sources, the suovetaurilia (a combined offering of a pig, a sheep and a bull) was performed exclusively for Mars. As a result, scholars often considered it impossible that this form of sacrifice could have taken place in a cult place dedicated to a deity other than Mars. However, analysis of the archaeozoological evidence and its archaeological context in the votive deposit in Satricum, Borgo Le Ferriere (Central Italy), and a comparison between this material and similar remains of animal offerings in Rome both show that suovetaurilia was not exclusively reserved for Mars, yet was common to female deities as well.
Mythe en werkelijkheid in de archeologie van het antieke Israel
In en door middel van de archeologie van het bijbelse Israel zijn vele mythen bedacht voor politieke en religieuze doeleinden. Ook wetenschappers hebben in hoge mate bijgedragen tot het creëren van dergelijke mythen. In het artikel wordt dit gedemonstreerd aan de hand van de carrière van de franse archeoloog en monnik Roland de Vaux. Het werk van de Vaux laat zien dat in een volgend stadium dergelijke mythen ook in een ideologie kunnen worden opgenomen. Naast het signaleren van deze processen, worden enkele bijzondere kenmerken van (bijbelse) nomadische samenlevingen besproken. Uiteindelijk gaat de auteir ook in op de vraag wat een moderne archeologische wetenschap met mythen en ideologieën moet doen.
Homeric Influences in the Royal Tombs at Vergina? Justification of Philip II’s rule over the Greek poleis
This article addresses the question of whether the funeral of Philip II, and the extreme wealth of the royal tombs at Vergina, are part of the larger Macedonian aim at Greek integration by using customs known from the ancient author-poet Homer. In this paper the author shows that the splendid Tomb II at Vergina is most likely the tomb of Philip II (rather than of Philippos Arrhidaios III) of Macedonia. The identity of the Macedonians was in a rather ambivalent position; to the other polis-oriented Greeks they were outsiders, yet because of their economic importance they were of necessity considered less barbaric than the ‘Barbarians’. The Macedonians were highly aware of this and made several overt attempts to show their Greekness, especially under Philip II’s rule, since the Greeks would never accept the rule of a non-Greek. One way to show this was to use ostentatious references to Homer, part and parcel of the Greek identity. In her research of the royal tombs at Vergina, which are most likely related to Philip II, the author has found at least five concrete parallels with Homer which would accord with the Philip II’s general desire to display his ‘Greek’ identity.
Giglioli’s Dream. The Mostra Augustea della Romanità 1937/38
In this article the author reviews Friedemann Scriba’s monography Augustus im Schwarzhemd? Die Mostra Augustea della Romanità in Rom 1937/38 (Frankfurt a/M 1995). Scriba’s study offers a detailed reconstruction of the monumental archaeological exhibition devoted to Augustus’ bimillenary and its propagandistic value for the fascist regime. Althoug Scriba plays substantial attention to the ideas of the archaeologist Giulio Quirino Giglioli (the organizer of the Mostra Augustea), the reviewer argues that this study neglects the hidden agenda of the so-called ‘militant’ archaeology, which Giglioli represented. On this agenda was the re-writing of the history of the Roman empire “from a typically Italians” perspective, i.e. by primarily focussing on the archaeological material instead of the literary tradition. Altough Scriba deals with a broad range of topics which may be connected to the Mostra Augustea, especially in the field of (fascist styled) aesthetics and museological didactics, he hardly deals with the history of Italian archaeological scholarship from the later 1890s onwards and its relation to this exhibition.
Mythos vs. Logos. Two central terms in Greek thought
The concept of myth is not easily defined; a historical evaluation of myth is therefore not without its problems. Yet the comparison between the different attitudes and conclusions reached by various scholars pose interesting questions, such as the question of the interrelationship between the intrinsic value of myth (religious beliefs) versus its scientific analysis. Both myth and logos are concepts that illustrate the power of the word. During Greek civilization we see an evolution from mythic-religious mindset to the logical thought of philosophy. The victory of the Apollonian over the Dionysian element in Greek religious thought signifies the supremacy of Logos over Mythos. The latter becomes apparent when religious cults like the Thesmophoria and the cult of Demeter are more closely examined.
More Dutch Fieldwork in Turkey. The Aspendos Aqueduct Research Project
Aspendos, often mentioned for its Roman theatre, is probably best known for its peculiar aqueduct system serving the city. This article presents the Aspendos Aqueduct Research Project, initiated by drs. H.P.M. Kessener. The water, coming from the mountains in the north, crossed a valley before arriving at the acropolis of Aspendos. In order to avoid the construction of a very high bridge, the water was lead by means of an inverted siphon. The stone pipeline ran over two hydraulic towers. The purpose of these two hydraulic towers is not yet clear, nor have the header and receiving tank of the siphon been identified. Beside the inverted siphon, the project is also concerned with the supply of the aqueduct and the urban distribution of the water it carried.
Ore-washeries in Laureion. Research in the past, present and future
A Belgian team of archaeologists has been at work in Thorikos and Laureion (Attica) since 1963. Recent attention has been directed by the present author towards the ore-washeries in the region. These installations were used to concentrate the ore and numerous -especially rectangular – examples have been found. In this article these studies done in the past and the objectives and the methods of present and future work are briefly considered. This is followed by some results from present work and some perspectives for future research. Although the ingenious washeries played an important role, they have never been studied in detail and many questions remain unanswered.