Indigenous Warriors from Luciana
In this thesis the focus has been the identification of warrior types and their fighting techniques. These warriors used to live among the indigenous people of ancient Luciana during the 1st millennium BC. The combination of iconography, artifacts and historical sources were used to create a picture of the situation during that time. Six levels namely weaponry, combinations, warrior types, fighting techniques, tactics/strategies and ranks have been introduced to clarify this situation. In every level a number of criteria and characteristics have been used to tackle the specific problems associated with it. The results show twelve warrior types, from which eight infantry types, one cavalry type and three infantry types with horses for transportation. Conclusions about these types tell us that a long development of military equipment and combat systems took place. The Greek and indigenous warriors competed in these areas to improve their situation to ultimately dominate the other. What makes it interesting is that a similar situation could have existed near other Greek colonies elsewhere.
A Metallurgical Survey in Muro Tenente
This article is about a metalsurvey in Muro Tenente, in the south of Italy. In the Mediterranean such a survey has never taken place before and field surveys are performed without the use of metal-detectors. This experimental survey therefore was to answer the question if, and in what way the results of this type of survey differ from the formally performed field survey. The outcome of this experiment provided some new and exciting information. A total of 203 metal objects were found during the metal survey. Almost 80% were finds of lead, mostly pottery repairfragments. 19 coins were found and gave some insights in the early use and development of coins. One peculiar find was a coin from Croton dated to 530-510 BC. It was not only the oldest coin found in Muro Tenente, but also the oldest datable peace of metal ever found on this site. The find of coins is interesting because they were hardly found during the field survey or even at the excavations. Another rare find was a piece of a golden earring (4th century BC) from Taranto, probably used as a gift exchange between elites. Hopefully the positive results from this type of survey will be repeated elsewhere in the Mediterranean.
Olive Cultivation and Social Stratification in Bronze Age Italy
In this article the emergence and development of olive cultivation in Southern Italy is discussed and its role in the shaping of the economic and social aspects of Late Bronze Age settlements, in particular the site of Broglio di Trebisacce (Calabria), which serves as a case study. Firstly, a critical examination is given of three basic types of direct archaeological evidence concerning cultivation of the olive, namely botanical data, artefactual evidence and traces of environmental influences caused by new agricultural developments. The conclusion is reached that the origins of olive cultivation can be traced back to the latter phase of the MBA (14th century BC). Next, the archaeological evidence for economic and social change during the Recent and Final Bronze Ages is discussed, laying emphasis both on the role of olive oil and association with the Aegean trading partners by the emerging elites. Lastly, a theoretical framework for social stratification in LBA Italy is given, incorporating some ideas on the role of the olive in this process.
Contemplating a contextual analysis of northern and central Italian bronzes
The author discusses traditions of interpreting metalwork in the context of Italian protohistory, and introduces an alternative approach to bronze objects from northern and central Italy (Middle Bronze Age – Early Iron Age, ca. 1700-700 BC). The proposed methodology enables one to consider the depositional patterns – i.e. the distribution between contexts of settlement, burial and hoard – of several classes of bronzes at the same time, thereby avoiding interpretative traditions that segregate reconstructions either by kind of archaeological context, or by class of bronzes. It is suggested that practices concerning the deposition of bronzes in contexts of settlement in the Middle and Late Bronze Ages, became embedded within funerary practices in the Final Bronze and Early Iron Ages.
An international puzzle of Archaic Greek potsherds
TMA 28 – Archeologie van Palestina
What the Philistines Have To Say To You…
On the Creation of an Image from Literary and Material Sources
The author makes it clear that the image of the Philistines (namely that of a very aggressive member of the Sea Peoples and an opponent of Israel), which derives especially from the Hebrew bible, is based on a wrong interpretation of the textual material and a carelessly applied archaeological interpretation. He uses the reliefs of Medinet Habu to explain that the iconographic approach should get as much attention as the historic approach. The image of the Philistines that derives from the iconographic method, shows us that the Philistines have a very long history in the Levant and were one of the groups that sided with Egypt most of the time and only once rebelled against Egypt. Moreover, an economical dominance, which requires merging with the natural inhabitants, seems more likely than a military one in view of the archaeological evidence. Finally, the author draws a parallel between the Philistine case and the settlement of the Israelites in Canaan.
Jerusalem in the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age
Archaeological versus Literary Sources?
Kathleen Kenyon’s excavations in Jerusalem have yielded some surprising results. No trace of a Late Bronze Age town was found, while from the Early Iron Age only a large terrace system was excavated, suggesting the presence of a fortification, not a town. This seems to be in contrast with some of the literary sources: the Amarna letters and biblical texts. However, a close reading of Abdiheba’s letters may support the suggestion that Urusalim was a royal estate, managed by an Egyptian official. The Early Iron Age fortress may have been constructed by the Egyptians as well, in an effort to resume control of the Jerusalem region. These ideas also influence our perception of the situation in the Late Iron Age, when a new town was built, an activity involving a newly established political entity.
The identification of Bet-Shemesh
An Example for the Relation Between Archaeology and the Bible
The identification of Beth-shemesh with tell er-rumele is quite certain, solidly based on the preservation of the ancient biblical name on a nearby site and on its location. The interpretation of the material remains is a matter of scholarly debate, in which the danger of circular arguments is obvious: the Bible interprets the material remains and vice versa. Circular arguments, however, are inevitable when bringing together such incommensurable entities as biblical texts and material residue. Nevertheless, the challenge should be faced, starting with the specific refined methods of biblical research and of archaeology, so that both disciplines can profit. In this article it is put forward that the lacking of Beth-shemesh in the town list of Judah (Joshua 15:21-62) is connected with the destruction of Beth-shemesh IIC at the end of the 8th century BC.
The Beginning of the Iron Age in the Southern Levant
The Origin of Israel
This paper covers the period from the end of the Late Bronze Age to the beginnings of the Early Iron Age in Transjordan and part of Palestine. During the Late Bronze Age the region of Transjordan was situated just outside the Egyptian empire. Only Pella in the Jordan Valley and later Deir’Alla formed part of the empire. The economy of this region was largely determined by a trade route from Egypt to Mesopotamia. Towards the end of the period international events caused this trade route to collapse. The result was a total collapse of the infrastructure in the plain of Amman and a new economy in the regions evolved. This caused a migration of tribes towards the south and the west, across the Jordan river.
William G. Dever. What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It? What archaeology can tell us about the reality of ancient Israel. Michigan/Cambridge 2001. (Mladen Popovic)
Gemma C.M. Jansen. Water in de Romeinse stad. Pompeji – Herculaneum – Ostia. Leuven 2002. (Eric P.G. Wetzels)