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TMA 51

Past, present and future: towards mediterranean archaeology 2.0

Jan Jaap Hekman

In this article the author explores the impact of the commercialisation of archaeology over the last decades. Through his own experience he is able to analyse the long term development in both Dutch commercial archaeology and academic Mediterranean archaeology under the influence of new heritage laws and heritage management. It is obvious that professional archaeology has thoroughly changed and archaeological work and job opportunities have undesirably become subject to economic conjecture. But is contract archaeology really helping us to preserve our heritage responsibly? And where does it leave the Dutch Mediterranean archaeologist? The author foresees a future in which academia and companies should collaborate to make foreign archaeology accessible to the Dutch archaeological ‘market’, so that archaeologists can actually be employed in their chosen field.

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The study of secondary burial in Mycenaean mortuary traditions: a new approach to the evidence

Olivia A. Jones

This paper presents a main issue within Mycenaean mortuary studies and proposes a realistic solution. The problem in past studies of Mycenaean mortuary data was the lack a fully contextualized and bioarchaeological approach which meant that only a portion of the mortuary record was examined. This article briefly addresses those associated problems and provides an interdisciplinary approach to the diverse mortuary data using three case study sites from the region of Achaea: Petroto, Chalandritsa-Agios Vasilios and Portes. By incorporating archaeological context, social theory, and a bioarchaeological analysis of human skeletal remains, researchers can adopt a more holistic approach to understanding the Mycenaean way of death.

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Copper ingots, bronze axes and composite daggers: the role of metalwork in the transition from Copper Age to Bronze Age networks in Central Italy

Erik van Rossenberg

The defining element of the Copper Age-Bronze Age transition in Central Italy is the Early Bronze Age hoarding phenomenon. Traditionally hoards of copper ingots, bronze axes and composite daggers have been studied as a single phenomenon. Regional differentiation between the Tyrrhenian and the Adriatic sides of the peninsula can be discerned in the composition of hoards and in raw material composition of their constituent objects. The hoarding phenomenon also shows a marked increase in production, exchange and deposition of metalwork in the course of the Early Bronze Age. Taking the evidence for synchronic and diachronic differentiation together, the author argues that metalwork was at the heart of network changes from the Copper Age to the Bronze Age. The hoarding phenomenon encapsulates a trajectory of network changes that was instrumental in the cultural integration of Central Italy as early as the Early-Middle Bronze Age transition.

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Small farmsteads of the Archaic and Classical-Lucanian period in the Sinni valley (600-325 BC).

Tineke Roovers

Despite dating problems and various research biases in the Quilici dataset, provided in the 8 volumes of the Carta Archeologica della Valle del Sinni, an overall infill of the rural landscape during the Archaic and Classical-Lucanian period (600 – 325 BC) in the valley of the Sinni river could be deduced. The farmsteads from this dataset are combined with location choices like preference for soil types or hill sides, vicinity of villages and necropoleis, as well as with the pottery assemblage found on these farm sites. Historical sources are also taken into account. Out of this combination the picture of two different landscapes emerged. For the Archaic period it seems that the society in the Sinni valley was largely village based, with production of food crops for the villages on nearby arable fields, and with only a few farmsteads spread throughout the valley. The next, Classical-Lucanian period witnessed a change to a farm based society. Many farms were built, especially in the fertile area of the Sant’Arcangelo Basin. Here a surplus was produced for the increasing population of the valley as well as for the expanding Greek colony of Herakleia, in the coastal plain of the Siritide.

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Etruscan bucchero pottery. Local origins and external influences. Towards a better understanding of Etruscan cultural contacts

Esther F. Rogmans

Etruscan bucchero pottery is more than a mere imitation of metal or Near Eastern prototypes and it deserves a more detailed study of its origins. It appears that bucchero designs are characterised by a distinctive mix of indigenous and non-local elements and influences from other material categories are present. Furthermore, bucchero pottery itself was widely distributed and in turn influenced craftsmen outside of Etruria. Bucchero pottery as a case study seems to have great potential in contributing not only to a better understanding of Etruscan cultural contact, but also to the on-going Mediterranean cultural contact debate.

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The archaeological site-museum instead of the national archaeological museum: The new Acropolis Museum and the Troad Museum

Laurien de Gelder

Much has been published about the history and the development of the (archaeological) museum as an institute and related phenomena as nationalism, identity and tourism. Hereby, little attention is being paid specifically to archaeological site-museums. This, while the latter is a highly important subject of research as an often complementary and determining part of the archaeological site. This article reviews and compares two major archaeological site-museums in the Mediterranean; the New Acropolis Museum at the Acropolis in Athens, Greece and the currently build Troad Museum at Troy, Turkey. The main aim of the article is to analyse this new type archaeological site-museum. This article will be the starting point for further research about archaeological site-museums in the Mediterranean.

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recensies

Negotiating Identity in the Ancient Mediterranean:
the Archaic and Classical Greek Multiethnic Emporia

Peter Attema

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Egyptianizing Figurines from Delos.
A study in Hellenistic Religion

Miguel John Versluys

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Tentoonstelling: De Krim – Goud en Geheimen van de Zwarte Zee

Janric van Rookhuijzen

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Monumentality in Etruscan and Early Roman Architecture. Ideology and Innovation

Elisabeth van ’t Lindenhout

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Paulus. Een leven tussen Jeruzalem en Rome

Frederik Boersema

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The complete archaeology of Greece. From hunter-gatherers
to the 20th century A.D.

Corien Wiersma

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Divining the Etruscan world.
The brontoscopic calendar and religious practice

Niels Steensma

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introducties op lopend onderzoek

The integration of Latin cults into Roman religion:
memory, cult practice and the construction of religious identity.

Promotieonderzoek Rianne Hermans

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Venationes in Africa Romana: an analysis of the cultural significance
and social function of hunting spectacles in Roman North Africa

Promotieonderzoek Anna Sparreboom

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Lieux de mémoire van Xerxes’ invasie van Griekenland in de
Historiën van Herodotus

Promotieonderzoek Janric van Rookhuijzen

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Resurrecting Berytus: osteoarchaeological analysis
and an evaluation of mortuary practices and cultural exchange
(1st century BC – 5th century AD)

PhD research Vana Kalenderian

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Pithoi. Storage practices and the Cretan city-state
during the 1st millennium

PhD research Samantha Ximeri

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TMA 52 – Digitale Archeologie

3D reconstruction techniques as research tools in archaeology:
the case study of Koroneia, Greece

Chiara Piccoli

Over the years, there has been an increasing exploitation of 3D visualizations in archaeology. These 3D models are mostly used to communicate the archaeologist’s interpretation to the public by visualizing the fragmentary and often puzzling archaeological evidence in a more understandable and appealing way. However, the use of 3D visualizations as a means to present archaeological sites to the public has overshadowed their application as a research tool during archaeological investigation. In fact, 3D reconstructions have mostly been used at the end of the archaeological study when the research and interpretation had already been completed, thus excluding them from the cycle of knowledge generation. A recent academic trend aims to counterbalance this tendency by demonstrating that 3D visualizations contribute to the archaeological evidence in a holistic way and make it possible to discover new relationships and patterns in the archaeological data, trigger new research questions and test alternative hypotheses. This article discusses the scientific role of 3D visualizations taking as a case study the current project of the reconstruction of the ancient town of Koroneia, Greece, that is carried out at Leiden University. The research is based on the combination of GIS data and procedural modelling techniques and aims to offer a tool that supports the ongoing survey of the ancient site by organizing the available data and visualizing possible reconstruction hypotheses on the ancient city layout. By following the methodology illustrated here, the 3D visualization is not an isolated outcome of the archaeological investigation, but becomes an integral part of the data interpretation and the hypothesis generation processes.

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A 3D Information system for the Mapping the Via Appia project

Maurice de Kleijn, Rens de Hond, Oscar Martinez-Rubi en Pjotr Svetachov

Over the last decades, the use of virtual 3D technologies in archaeology has increased tremendously. Projects in which scanning techniques are used to obtain 3D measurements or in which 3D modelling software is used to generate virtual reconstructions are numerous. However, applying 3D technologies to generate a complex 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) in which the data can be systematically queried and in which sophisticated 3D analyses can be conducted, are not yet widespread. For complex archaeological sites especially, in which structures and objects are scattered over the study area, a 3D GIS aids to structure and analyse the complex dataset. This article discusses the development of a 3D Geographic Information System for the Mapping the Via Appia project in Rome. Based on an analysis of the user requirements, it presents the development pipeline in which the data structure and the functionalities are defined. The pipeline presented offers innovative functionalities for analysing the study area and aims to function as an example for other complex archaeological study areas.

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Virtual Archaeology and the 4D Research Lab: results and reflection

Loes Opgenhaffen

3D-modeling and Virtual Reality are increasingly becoming valuable methods to gain insights into the past as an integrated part of current archaeological research. The 4D Research Lab of the University of Amsterdam participates in this development and assists not only archaeologists, but specialists from all the Humanities with specific spatial or architectural questions that cannot be solved with traditional tools and methods. This paper features a concise and critical history of virtual archaeology and illustrates the contribution that the 4D Research Lab tries to make to this young discipline of virtual archaeology.

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An excavation in 3D:
the usability and reliability of a photogrammetric method for archaeological documentation.

Stefan Kooi

Archaeologists strive for an accurate and objective documentation of contexts, features and finds during an excavation. Traditionally, this is accomplished by means of manual measuring and drawing of the identified features into plans and by two-dimensional photography. The quality of the drawings, however, is not consistent and the process of making them can be very time-consuming, whilst when using photographs, the viewer is bound to the perspective chosen by the photographer. 3D technology can provide a solution to these problems, because the produced models are scaled and recorded objectively and because they are navigable. Photogrammetry is a low-cost and relatively user-friendly method for creating 3D models as a means of recording archaeological excavations, and has the potential to change current field methodology. This point is substantiated with examples from the Early Iron Age to Classical sanctuary site at Karystos-Plakari in Greece.

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The Devil is in the Details: a burnt Late Bronze Age hut

Wieke de Neef & Martijn van Leusen

The Rural Life in Protohistoric Italy project investigates small surface scatters from the Bronze and Iron Age, found during field walking surveys in Calabria, Italy. In this article we argue that detailed, multidisciplinary investigations of such ephemeral sites are crucial for our understanding of protohistoric rural society and land use. We illustrate our methodological approach of integrated surface recordings, geophysical methods, small test pits and laboratory studies with the case study of the Late Bronze Age site T231. The implications of this case study for regional settlement models are discussed.

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GIS as an integral part of archaeological research;
an interactive map of ancient Koroneia

Yannick Boswinkel

Over the last couple of years the ancient city of Koroneia has been subject to a surface survey. Besides the large quantities of pottery found and collected, architectural fragments were also encountered and over a number of seasons some 2200 architectural fragments were found and recorded. Because of the fragmentary state of the material a method was sought to combine the limited amount of data that could be recorded in an attempt to get as much information out of this as possible. GIS has been used in archaeology for many years and has always been seen as a powerful tool to create distribution maps. Since a proper method to visualise data can greatly enhance the understanding of the data, the use of GIS makes sense. In this article, visualising and combining the various forms of data from Koroneia is the main focus. By combining various data, such as GPS measurements, descriptive data and photos, into a single map the aim is to go beyond the creation of an image of the site but to create an interactive map. This interactive map allows for more than storing and visualising data as it gives the opportunity to be used as a research and analysis tool. In this manner it becomes an integral part of the research. This article describes the creation of this type of map and why it is a useful method in researching a limited and fragmentary dataset.

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Legacy Data: do think twice, it’s not always right

Jan Ferco van der Weg & Anne-Jan Wijnstok

In this article the possibilities of re-evaluating legacy survey data by means of digital archaeological applications are reviewed. The importance of these applications lies in the fact that many archaeological projects make use of information produced by earlier projects, often without certainty of the quality of these legacy data. The case study, focusing on legacy data in Calabria, Italy, offers an example of the way these types of biases can be recognized through the application of modelling within Geographical Information Systems. The case study has important implications regarding the consideration of landscape factors when dealing with possible biases in legacy data. The article is a synthesis of a larger report written on this subject. The full report (in English) can be found on the authors’ Academia pages.

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Advancing the Tell Sabi Abyad archive into the 21st century

Victor Klinkenberg

The excavations at Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria, have yielded very important remains from the Late Neolithic and the Late Bronze Age. The resulting excavation archive covers 30 years of excavation, is unique in nature and of tremendous scientific value. The archive is constituted of many forms, drawings and photographs and is stored in different locations around the world. Because of this, it is largely inaccessible and exceptionally vulnerable to fire or water damage. For this reason, the entire Tell Sabi Abyad archive has been digitized and merged in one large online dataset, opening up data and knowledge from decades of excavating to the entire world.

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recensies

De geboorte van Rome. De opkomst van het grootste wereldrijk aller tijden

Marleen Termeer

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Space and Society in the Greek and Roman Worlds

Theo Verlaan

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The Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. Beyond Pharaohs

Judith Jurjens

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introducties op lopend onderzoek

Textile production in Bronze Age Italy – textiles, tools and technical knowledge

PhD research (LU), Christoph Kremer

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Uitbreiding van regionale aardewerkstudies door middel van archeometrisch onderzoek

Post-doc onderzoek (GIA, NWO), Barbara Borgers

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An empire of 2000 cities: urban networks and economic integration in the Roman empire

Onderzoeksproject (ERC, UL), Luuk de Ligt (projectleider)

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Identity and interaction in the Neolithic island Aegean. The production, circulation and consumption of ceramic vessels on Chios (GR)

Promotieonderzoek Brecht Lambrechts (KUL, FWO Vlaanderen)

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Agriculture in the desert: Archaeological research on ancient water management and field systems in Udhruh, Southern Jordan, 300 BC – AD 800

Promotieonderzoek Sufyan Al Karaimeh (UL)

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