3D reconstruction techniques as research tools in archaeology: the case study of Koroneia, Greece
Chiara Piccoli

Over the years, there has been an increasing exploitation of 3D visualizations in archaeology. These 3D models are mostly used to communicate the archaeologist’s interpretation to the public by visualizing the fragmentary and often puzzling archaeological evidence in a more understandable and appealing way. However, the use of 3D visualizations as a means to present archaeological sites to the public has overshadowed their application as a research tool during archaeological investigation. In fact, 3D reconstructions have mostly been used at the end of the archaeological study when the research and interpretation had already been completed, thus excluding them from the cycle of knowledge generation. A recent academic trend aims to counterbalance this tendency by demonstrating that 3D visualizations contribute to the archaeological evidence in a holistic way and make it possible to discover new relationships and patterns in the archaeological data, trigger new research questions and test alternative hypotheses. This article discusses the scientific role of 3D visualizations taking as a case study the current project of the reconstruction of the ancient town of Koroneia, Greece, that is carried out at Leiden University. The research is based on the combination of GIS data and procedural modelling techniques and aims to offer a tool that supports the ongoing survey of the ancient site by organizing the available data and visualizing possible reconstruction hypotheses on the ancient city layout. By following the methodology illustrated here, the 3D visualization is not an isolated outcome of the archaeological investigation, but becomes an integral part of the data interpretation and the hypothesis generation processes.
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A 3D Information system for the Mapping the Via Appia project
Maurice de Kleijn, Rens de Hond, Oscar Martinez-Rubi en Pjotr Svetachov

Over the last decades, the use of virtual 3D technologies in archaeology has increased tremendously. Projects in which scanning techniques are used to obtain 3D measurements or in which 3D modelling software is used to generate virtual reconstructions are numerous. However, applying 3D technologies to generate a complex 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) in which the data can be systematically queried and in which sophisticated 3D analyses can be conducted, are not yet widespread. For complex archaeological sites especially, in which structures and objects are scattered over the study area, a 3D GIS aids to structure and analyse the complex dataset. This article discusses the development of a 3D Geographic Information System for the Mapping the Via Appia project in Rome. Based on an analysis of the user requirements, it presents the development pipeline in which the data structure and the functionalities are defined. The pipeline presented offers innovative functionalities for analysing the study area and aims to function as an example for other complex archaeological study areas.
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Virtual Archaeology and the 4D Research Lab: results and reflection
Loes Opgenhaffen

3D-modeling and Virtual Reality are increasingly becoming valuable methods to gain insights into the past as an integrated part of current archaeological research. The 4D Research Lab of the University of Amsterdam participates in this development and assists not only archaeologists, but specialists from all the Humanities with specific spatial or architectural questions that cannot be solved with traditional tools and methods. This paper features a concise and critical history of virtual archaeology and illustrates the contribution that the 4D Research Lab tries to make to this young discipline of virtual archaeology.
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An excavation in 3D: the usability and reliability of a photogrammetric method for archaeological documentation
Stefan Kooi

Archaeologists strive for an accurate and objective documentation of contexts, features and finds during an excavation. Traditionally, this is accomplished by means of manual measuring and drawing of the identified features into plans and by two-dimensional photography. The quality of the drawings, however, is not consistent and the process of making them can be very time-consuming, whilst when using photographs, the viewer is bound to the perspective chosen by the photographer. 3D technology can provide a solution to these problems, because the produced models are scaled and recorded objectively and because they are navigable. Photogrammetry is a low-cost and relatively user-friendly method for creating 3D models as a means of recording archaeological excavations, and has the potential to change current field methodology. This point is substantiated with examples from the Early Iron Age to Classical sanctuary site at Karystos-Plakari in Greece.
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The Devil is in the Details: a burnt Late Bronze Age hut
Wieke de Neef & Martijn van Leusen

The Rural Life in Protohistoric Italy project investigates small surface scatters from the Bronze and Iron Age, found during field walking surveys in Calabria, Italy. In this article we argue that detailed, multidisciplinary investigations of such ephemeral sites are crucial for our understanding of protohistoric rural society and land use. We illustrate our methodological approach of integrated surface recordings, geophysical methods, small test pits and laboratory studies with the case study of the Late Bronze Age site T231. The implications of this case study for regional settlement models are discussed.
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GIS as an integral part of archaeological research; an interactive map of ancient Koroneia
Yannick Boswinkel

Over the last couple of years the ancient city of Koroneia has been subject to a surface survey. Besides the large quantities of pottery found and collected, architectural fragments were also encountered and over a number of seasons some 2200 architectural fragments were found and recorded. Because of the fragmentary state of the material a method was sought to combine the limited amount of data that could be recorded in an attempt to get as much information out of this as possible. GIS has been used in archaeology for many years and has always been seen as a powerful tool to create distribution maps. Since a proper method to visualise data can greatly enhance the understanding of the data, the use of GIS makes sense. In this article, visualising and combining the various forms of data from Koroneia is the main focus. By combining various data, such as GPS measurements, descriptive data and photos, into a single map the aim is to go beyond the creation of an image of the site but to create an interactive map. This interactive map allows for more than storing and visualising data as it gives the opportunity to be used as a research and analysis tool. In this manner it becomes an integral part of the research. This article describes the creation of this type of map and why it is a useful method in researching a limited and fragmentary dataset.
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Legacy Data: do think twice, it’s not always right
Jan Ferco van der Weg & Anne-Jan Wijnstok

In this article the possibilities of re-evaluating legacy survey data by means of digital archaeological applications are reviewed. The importance of these applications lies in the fact that many archaeological projects make use of information produced by earlier projects, often without certainty of the quality of these legacy data. The case study, focusing on legacy data in Calabria, Italy, offers an example of the way these types of biases can be recognized through the application of modelling within Geographical Information Systems. The case study has important implications regarding the consideration of landscape factors when dealing with possible biases in legacy data. The article is a synthesis of a larger report written on this subject. The full report (in English) can be found on the authors’ Academia pages.
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Advancing the Tell Sabi Abyad archive into the 21st century
Victor Klinkenberg

The excavations at Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria, have yielded very important remains from the Late Neolithic and the Late Bronze Age. The resulting excavation archive covers 30 years of excavation, is unique in nature and of tremendous scientific value. The archive is constituted of many forms, drawings and photographs and is stored in different locations around the world. Because of this, it is largely inaccessible and exceptionally vulnerable to fire or water damage. For this reason, the entire Tell Sabi Abyad archive has been digitized and merged in one large online dataset, opening up data and knowledge from decades of excavating to the entire world.
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De geboorte van Rome. De opkomst van het grootste wereldrijk aller tijden
Marleen Termeer
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Space and Society in the Greek and Roman Worlds
Theo Verlaan
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The Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. Beyond Pharaohs
Judith Jurjens
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introducties op lopend onderzoek

Textile production in Bronze Age Italy – textiles, tools and technical knowledge
PhD research (LU), Christoph Kremer
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Uitbreiding van regionale aardewerkstudies door middel van archeometrisch onderzoek
Post-doc onderzoek (GIA, NWO), Barbara Borgers
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An empire of 2000 cities: urban networks and economic integration in the Roman empire
Onderzoeksproject (ERC, UL), Luuk de Ligt (projectleider)
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Identity and interaction in the Neolithic island Aegean. The production, circulation and consumption of ceramic vessels on Chios (GR)
Promotieonderzoek Brecht Lambrechts (KUL, FWO Vlaanderen)
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Agriculture in the desert: Archaeological research on ancient water management and field systems in Udhruh, Southern Jordan, 300 BC – AD 800
Promotieonderzoek Sufyan Al Karaimeh (UL)
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